NGO Another Way (Stichting Bakens Verzet), 1018 AM Amsterdam, Netherlands.


Edition 03: 13 August, 2010.

Edition 09 : 15 February, 2014.


01. E-course : Diploma in Integrated Development (Dip. Int. Dev)


Quarter 1.






Study value : 04 points out of 18.

Indicative study time: 112 hours out of 504.


Study points are awarded only after the consolidated exam for Section A : Development Problems has been passed.



Second block : The problems to be solved.


Study points : 02 points out of 18

Expected work required: 55 hours out of 504


The two study points will be finally awarded on successful completion of the consolidated exam for Section A : Development problems.



Section 1. Analysis of the Millennium Goals. [22 hours]


[18.00 Hours] Analysis of the Millennium Goals.

[04.00 Hours] Preparation report Section 1 of Block 2.


Section 2: Relate the Millennium Goals to the services for a good quality of life in Section 2 of block 1. [23 hours]


[18.00 Hours] Analysis of the services made available by integrated development projects.

[05.00 Hours]  Preparation report Section 2 of Block 2.


Second block : Exam. [ 4 hours each attempt]


Consolidated exam for Section A : Development problems (for passage to Section B of the course :  [ 6 hours each attempt].



Section 1. Analysis of the Millennium Goals. [22 hours]


[18.00 Hours] Analysis of the Millennium Goals.


00. Summary of the Millennium Goals.

01. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.

02. Achieve universal primary education.

03. Promote gender equality and empower women.

04. Reduce child mortality.

05. Improve maternal health.

06. Combat HIV/aids, malaria and other diseases.

07. Target 09 : Ensure environmental sustainability.

07. Targets 10 and 11 : Water, sanitation  and slums.

08. Develop a global partnership for development.



[18.00 Hours] Analysis of the Millennium Goals.


00. Summary of the Millennium Goals. (At least 2 hours).


“It will be the number of studies and meetings, the geographical distribution of participants and venues, the ability to spend the money allotted in a way satisfactory to the auditors, within the time allotted, that will be the indicator of success, not the results.”  (J. Galtung, “On the Anthropology of the United Nations System”, Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin, Berlin, January 1983, p. 7, accessed at on 25 October, 2012.)




The Millennium Project, commissioned by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, has produced a report called A practical plan to achieve the Millennium Development Goals – 2002-2006.  With effect from 1 January 2007 reporting on the Millennium Development Goals was taken over  by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) which brings out annual reports on progress made in achieving the Development Goals. The most recent report at the time of preparing this course was the Millennium Development Goals Report 2008. The most recent report published is  The Millennium Development Goals Report 2010. Analysis of these documents is included in parts Goals 1-4 and  Goals 5-8 in Section 8 of Block 5.


“This Summit will be remembered not for the treaties, the commitments, or the declarations it produced, but for the first stirrings of a new way of governing the global commons – the beginnings of a shift from the stiff formal waltz of traditional diplomacy to the jazzier dance of improvisational solution-oriented partnerships that may include non-government organizations, willing governments and other stakeholders.”  (Jonathan Lash, President, News Release “WRI expresses disappointment over many WSSD  outcomes”, World Resources Institute, Washington, 2002) cited in State of Power 2014 : Exposing the Davos Class, The Transnational Institute, Amsterdam, 2014, p. 19.)  


Read the three page note on the preparation of international texts by C. Corbin, From WSSD to Barbados + 10 : Environmental Negotiations – Cycles of Success or Futility, published by Foundation for International Environmental Law and Environment (FIELD),, London, 2010.


Some health and welfare aspects are not even mentioned  in either the 2002 Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development or the Plan of Implementation of the Millennium Goals. Eye care is relevant to seven of the eight Millennium Goals yet the word “eye” does not appear anywhere in those documents. (Looi, S; Keys, T., Millennium Development Goals and Eye Care – the Post-2105 Agenda, Mivision, Banksmeadow, 27 January, 2014.)


Read the  Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development,  Johannesburg, 4  September, 2002.


Point 18 of the Declaration provides :


« 18. We welcome the focus of the Johannesburg Summit on the indivisibility of human dignity and are resolved, through decisions on targets, timetables and partnerships, to speedily increase access to such basic requirements as clean water, sanitation, adequate shelter, energy, health care, food security and the protection of biodiversity. At the same time, we will work together to help one another gain access to financial resources, benefit from the opening of markets, ensure capacity-building, use modern technology to bring about development and make sure that there is technology transfer, human resource development, education and training to banish underdevelopment forever.”


This paragraph contains two sentences. The first sentence refers to «basic » goods and services. In the second, reference is made to access (amongst other things) to financial resources, the opening of markets, the use of modern technology and technology transfer.


1. Opinion.


Explain on two pages the  « spirit »  of paragraph 18. On one page express the point of view of an inhabitant of a poor country. On the second page express the point of view of a company director in an industrialised country.


Point 27 of the Declaration states :


“27. We agree that in pursuit of its legitimate activities the private sector, including both large and small companies, has a duty to contribute to the evolution of equitable and sustainable communities and societies.”


2. Opinion.


On one page present your interpretation of  paragraph 27.


Study the Plan of Implementation of the Millennium Goals  declared in Johannesburg.


Article 66 (a)  section VIII of the Plan of Implementation


Article 66 (a) of the Plan of  Implementation adopted at the World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, 4th September 2002  together with the Johannesburg Declaration is part of section VIII of the Plan.  Section VIII is headed “Sustainable development for Africa”. It includes articles 62-71 of the Plan of Implementation.


Article 66 refers to the development and management of integrated water resources in Africa.


Article 66 (a) reads that one of the objects of the Plan is to:


“(a) Provide access to potable domestic water, hygiene education and improved sanitation and waste management at the household level through initiatives to encourage public and private investment in water supply and sanitation ……while respecting local conditions involving all concerned stakeholders……”


The Millennium Development goals for drinking water and sanitation are therefore to be solved by encouraging “public and private investment”.  While it is not clear what the words “respecting local conditions involving all concerned stakeholders” mean, one interpretation of them is that all established rights, such as existing control by multinational companies of water supply in some large cities in developing countries, will not be touched and the status quo will be maintained.


On the other hand, neither in section 66 (a) nor anywhere else in the Plan of Implementation, are key development concepts such as “interest”, “monoculture”, “local economies”, “micro-economic” or “local production”  mentioned. Not once. Anywhere. The term “local development” is mentioned just once, in Article 19, where it is directly coupled with “national development”.


The key issue for development, stopping financial leakage from poor areas, is mentioned only once, indirectly, in article 83 of  the Plan of Implementation, where the term “capital flight ” is used.


3. Opinion.


On one page, give your opinion on the comments made above on article 66 of the implementation plan.


Article 83, section X, of the Plan of Implementation


Article 83 of the Plan of  Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, 4th September 2002 sends shivers down the spine of anyone who has the interests of the world’s poor at heart. The Plan of Implementation was adopted together with the Johannesburg Declaration.  Article 83 is part of section X of the Plan.  Section X is headed “Means of implementation” . It includes articles 81-136 of the Plan of Implementation.


Article 83 reads:


83. In our common pursuit of growth, poverty eradication and sustainable development, a critical challenge is to ensure the necessary internal conditions for mobilizing domestic savings, both public and private, sustaining adequate levels of productive investment and increasing human capacity. A crucial task is to enhance the efficacy, coherence and consistency of macroeconomic policies. An enabling domestic environment is vital for mobilizing domestic resources, increasing productivity, reducing capital flight, encouraging the private sector and attracting and making effective use of international investment and assistance. Efforts to create such an environment should be supported by the international community.”


Article 83 is an example of the confusion deliberately created at international level around development and development aid at the beginning of the 21st century.


It refers to the creation of necessary conditions for the “mobilisation” of public and private domestic savings. Which conditions these are, and how and by whom they are to be “mobilised” is not stated.


Article 83 claims it is necessary to “sustain adequate levels of productive investment”. Investment by whom?  Productive in which way? 


It is said that “productive investment” is “crucial”  to “enhance the efficacy, coherence and consistency of  macroeconomic policies.”  Whose policies?  What are the criteria for making them efficacious, coherent and consistent?


An “enabling domestic environment” is said to be one which encourages the private sector and attracts and makes effective use “of international investment and assistance.”


One of the tasks of the international community is said to be to make sure that the favourable domestic environments needed to attract and make use “of international investment and assistance” are created.


In reality article 83 clearly suggests that the implementation of the Millennium Goals, and therefore development and the elimination of poverty,  is to be achieved through putting pressure on the governments of developing countries to continue to privilege the interests of industrialised nations and multinationals and maintain the present economic status quo. 


4. Opinion.


One two pages, indicate whether you agree with the above  criticism of article 83 of the Implementation Plan, explaining your reasons for or against.


Read the article  «Achieving the MDGs: The Fundamentals, »  A. Shepherd, ODI Overseas Development Institute, Briefing Paper 43, London, 2008. On page 3, in the paragraph on economic growth, the author states that «The MDGs cannot be achieved without economic growth.”


5. Opinion.


On one page, give your opinion on Shepherd’s statement.


On preliminary proposals for the continuation of the Millennium Development Goals for the period 2015-2030 read Reflection on HLP [High Level Panel] post 2015 report – by far not good enough, Women’s Major Group (WMG), , 31 May, 2013.


In particular, the authors note:


“Without seriously reforming the economic and social systems that can create the necessary enabling environments for national governments to actually provide their people with the services that they need, and the human rights that they are entitled to, we  will not create  transformational change for women, men, young people or for the planet.” (p. 3)


[ The extractives sector is  destructive,] “depleting natural resources of developing countries and displacing communities, while taking almost all revenues abroad and leaving irreparable damage to the environment and public health.” (p. 3)


“Most worrying is that the report equals the rights of women, men and children, to that of business regarding land and property rights (target 1b), which is opening the door wide for more land-grabbing.” (p. 4)


“The report also does not address public financing of health services and the quality of services, the need for public control over public services and to halt the promotion of privatization.”


 Second block :  Problems to be solved.

Index : Diploma in Integrated Development  (Dip.Int.Dev)

 List of key words.

 List of references.

  Course chart.

 Technical aspects.

 Courses available.

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