Another Way (Stichting Bakens Verzet), 1018 AM
Edition 03: 13 August, 2010.
Edition 06 : 04 March, 2013.
Study value : 04 points out of 18.
Indicative study time: 112 hours out of 504.
Study points are awarded only after the consolidated exam for Section A : Development Problems has been passed.
Study points : 02 points out of 18
Expected work required: 55 hours out of 504
The two study points will be finally awarded on successful completion of the consolidated exam for Section A : Development problems.
Section 1. Analysis of the Millennium Goals. [22 hours]
Second block : Exam. [ 4 hours each attempt]
Consolidated exam for Section A : Development problems (for passage to Section B of the course : [ 6 hours each attempt].
Section 1. Analysis of the Millennium Goals. [22 hours]
00. Summary of the Millennium Goals. (At least 2 hours).
“It will be the number of studies and meetings, the
geographical distribution of participants and venues, the ability to spend the
money allotted in a way satisfactory to the auditors, within the time allotted,
that will be the indicator of success, not the results.” (J. Galtung, “On the
Anthropology of the United Nations System”, Wissenschaftskolleg zu
The Millennium Project, commissioned by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, has produced a report called A practical plan to achieve the Millennium Development Goals – 2002-2006. With effect from 1 January 2007 reporting on the Millennium Development Goals was taken over by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) which brings out annual reports on progress made in achieving the Development Goals. The most recent report at the time of preparing this course was the Millennium Development Goals Report 2008. The most recent report published is The Millennium Development Goals Report 2010. Analysis of these documents is included in parts Goals 1-4 and Goals 5-8 in Section 8 of Block 5.
Read the three page note on the preparation of international texts by C.
Corbin, From WSSD to Barbados + 10 : Environmental Negotiations – Cycles of
Success or Futility, published by Foundation for
International Environmental Law and Environment (FIELD), www.field.org.uk,
Read the Johannesburg Declaration on
Point 18 of the Declaration provides :
« 18. We welcome the focus of the Johannesburg Summit on the indivisibility of human dignity and are resolved, through decisions on targets, timetables and partnerships, to speedily increase access to such basic requirements as clean water, sanitation, adequate shelter, energy, health care, food security and the protection of biodiversity. At the same time, we will work together to help one another gain access to financial resources, benefit from the opening of markets, ensure capacity-building, use modern technology to bring about development and make sure that there is technology transfer, human resource development, education and training to banish underdevelopment forever.”
This paragraph contains two sentences. The first sentence refers to «basic » goods and services. In the second, reference is made to access (amongst other things) to financial resources, the opening of markets, the use of modern technology and technology transfer.
Explain on two pages the « spirit » of paragraph 18. On one page express the point of view of an inhabitant of a poor country. On the second page express the point of view of a company director in an industrialised country.
Point 27 of the Declaration states :
“27. We agree that in pursuit of its legitimate activities the private sector, including both large and small companies, has a duty to contribute to the evolution of equitable and sustainable communities and societies.”
On one page present your interpretation of paragraph 27.
Study the Plan of Implementation of the Millennium Goals declared in
Article 66 (a) section VIII of the Plan of Implementation
Article 66 (a) of the Plan
of Implementation adopted at the World
Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, 4th September 2002 together with the Johannesburg Declaration is
part of section VIII of the Plan.
Section VIII is headed “Sustainable development for
Article 66 refers to the
development and management of integrated water resources in
Article 66 (a) reads that one of the objects of the Plan is to:
“(a) Provide access to potable domestic water, hygiene education and improved sanitation and waste management at the household level through initiatives to encourage public and private investment in water supply and sanitation ……while respecting local conditions involving all concerned stakeholders……”
The Millennium Development goals for drinking water and sanitation are therefore to be solved by encouraging “public and private investment”. While it is not clear what the words “respecting local conditions involving all concerned stakeholders” mean, one interpretation of them is that all established rights, such as existing control by multinational companies of water supply in some large cities in developing countries, will not be touched and the status quo will be maintained.
On the other hand, neither in section 66 (a) nor anywhere else in the Plan of Implementation, are key development concepts such as “interest”, “monoculture”, “local economies”, “micro-economic” or “local production” mentioned. Not once. Anywhere. The term “local development” is mentioned just once, in Article 19, where it is directly coupled with “national development”.
The key issue for development, stopping financial leakage from poor areas, is mentioned only once, indirectly, in article 83 of the Plan of Implementation, where the term “capital flight ” is used.
On one page, give your opinion on the comments made above on article 66 of the implementation plan.
Article 83, section X, of the Plan of Implementation
Article 83 of the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on
Article 83 reads:
Article 83 is an example of the confusion deliberately created at international level around development and development aid at the beginning of the 21st century.
It refers to the creation of necessary conditions for the “mobilisation” of public and private domestic savings. Which conditions these are, and how and by whom they are to be “mobilised” is not stated.
Article 83 claims it is necessary to “sustain adequate levels of productive investment”. Investment by whom? Productive in which way?
It is said that “productive investment” is “crucial” to “enhance the efficacy, coherence and consistency of macroeconomic policies.” Whose policies? What are the criteria for making them efficacious, coherent and consistent?
An “enabling domestic environment” is said to be one which encourages the private sector and attracts and makes effective use “of international investment and assistance.”
One of the tasks of the international community is said to be to make sure that the favourable domestic environments needed to attract and make use “of international investment and assistance” are created.
In reality article 83 clearly suggests that the implementation of the Millennium Goals, and therefore development and the elimination of poverty, is to be achieved through putting pressure on the governments of developing countries to continue to privilege the interests of industrialised nations and multinationals and maintain the present economic status quo.
One two pages, indicate whether you agree with the above criticism of article 83 of the Implementation Plan, explaining your reasons for or against.
Read the article «Achieving the MDGs: The
Fundamentals, » A.
Shepherd, ODI Overseas Development Institute, Briefing Paper 43,
On one page, give your opinion on Shepherd’s statement.
◄ Second block : Problems to be solved.